Definition – What are Ground Outs to Fly Outs (GO/AO) Ratio?
GO/AO is a baseball ratio used to determine if a batter hits high or low. A GO/AO above 1 means that the hitter is more likely to ground out. A GO/AO below 1 means the hitter is more likely to fly out (air out).
It can also be used for a pitcher.
Knowing whether a play will be more likely to fly or ground will help both the defensive and offensive teams adjust their play.
Ground Ball / Fly Ball (GB/FB) is a similar metric.
Formula – How to calculate GO/AO
GO/AO = Ground Outs ÷ Fly Outs
If a batter has produced 140 Ground Outs (GO) and 77 Fly Balls (AO), then:
GO/AO = 140 ÷ 77
GO/AO = 1.82
This batter’s GO/AO ratio is 1.82. They are more likely to ground out.
Sources and more resources
- Wikipedia – Ground Ball / Fly Ball Ratio – Wikipedia entry on ground to fly outs.
- Glossary entry from Sporting Charts.
- Statistics on ground and fly scenarios from Sporting Charts (Pitching) and Sporting Charts (Hitting).
- More on ground and fly balls by Fan Duel – “Bill James on overrating ground-ball pitchers” and Hardball Times – “Ground Balls: A Hitter’s Best Friend?”
- Rules on baseball and baseball statistics from Major League Baseball, NCAA (Baseball), NCAA (Softball), NCAA (Baseball and Softball), NFHS, and the International Baseball Federation.