What is Ground Outs to Fly Outs (GO/AO) Ratio?
GO/AO is a baseball ratio that compares the number of fly outs for each ground outs produced by a batter.
It is often used to asses the type of hitter – whether they generally hit high or low.
It is also used to evaluate pitchers for the same information – whether their pitching style produces low or high hits.
Understanding the type of hits more likely to be generated helps both the offense and defense plan their individual strategies.
A higher result means that more ground outs are produced (hits are more often low) while a lower result means that more fly outs are produced (hits are generally high).
How to calculate GO/AO
In Baseball, on GO/AO is calculated as follows:
GO/AO = Ground Outs / Fly Outs
If a batter has produced 140 Ground Outs (GO) and 77 Fly Balls (AO), then:
GO/AO = 140 / 77
GO/AO = 1.82
This batter’s GO/AO ratio is 1.82.
- Wikipedia – Ground Ball / Fly Ball Ratio
- Sporting Charts – What is Ground Outs to Air Outs
- Sporting Charts – MLB Team Pitching Ground Ball Fly Ball Ratio
- Sporting Charts – MLB Team Hitting Ground Ball Fly Ball Ratio
- Fan Duel – Bill James on overrating ground-ball pitchers
- Hardball Times – Ground Balls: A Hitter’s Best Friend?
- NCAA – Official Baseball Statistics Rules
- NCAA – Official Softball Statistics Rules
- NCAA – The Official NCAA Baseball and Softball Scorebook
- NFHS – Statistician’s Manual
- International Baseball Federation – Scoring Manual
Baseball Statistics Calculators
- At Bats per Home Run (ABHR)
- Batting Average (BA)
- Batting Average on Balls in Play (BABIP)
- Walks per 9 Innings (BB/9)
- Walk to Strikeout Ratio (BB/K)
- Batting Park Factor (BFP)
- Component ERA (CERA)
- Defense Independent Component ERA (DICE)
- Earned Run Average (ERA)
- Equivalent Average (EqA)
- Fielding Percentage (FCPT)
- Fielding Percentage (FIP)
- Ground Ball / Fly Ball (GB/FB)
- Ground Outs / Fly Outs (GO/AO)
- Gross Production Average (GPA)
- Hits per 9 Innings (H/9)
- Innings Pitched per Game (IP/GS)
- Isolated Power (ISO)
- Strike to Walk Ratio (K/BB)
- Left on Base Percentage (LOB%)
- On Base Percentage (OBP)
- On Base Plus Slugging (OBPS)
- Opponents Batting Average (OBA)
- Plate Appearances per Strikeout (PA/SO)
- Power Finesse Ratio (PFR)
- Pythagorean Expectation
- Run Average (RA)
- Runs Created (RC)
- Range Factor (RF)
- Runs Produced (RP)
- Stolen Base Percentage (SB%)
- Slugging Percentage (SLG)
- Save Percentage (SV%)
- Total Average (TA)
- Total Bases (TB)
- Total Chances (TC)
- Times on Base (TOB)
- Walks and Hits per Inning Pitched (WHIP)
- Extrapolated runs (XR / XRR / XRB)